Tag: USB

SECURITY+ Acronyms


Stands for

3DES Triple Data Encryption Standard
AAA Authentication, Authorization and Accounting
ACL Access Control List
AES Advanced Encryption Standard
AES 256 Advanced Encryption Standards, 256-bit
AH Authentication Header
ARP Address Resolution Protocol
AUP Acceptable Use Policy
BCP Business Continuity Planning
BIOS Basic Input/Output System
BOTS Network Robots
CA Certificate Authority
CCTV Closed-Circuit Television
CERT Computer Emergency Response Team
CHAP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
CIRT Computer Incident Response Team
CRL Certification Revocation List
DAC Discretionary Access Control
DDOS Distributed Denial of Service
DEP Data Execution Prevention
DES Data Encryption Standard
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DLL Dynamic Link Library
DLP Data Loss Prevention
DMZ Demilitarized Zone
DNS Domain Name Service
DOS Denial Of Service
DRP Disaster Recovery Plan
DSA Digital Signature Algorithm
EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol
ECC Elliptic Curve Cryptography
EFS Encrypted File System
EMI Electromagnetic Interference
ESP Encapsulated Security Payload
FTP File Transfer Protocol
GPU Graphic Processing Unit
GRE Generic Routing Encapsulation
HDD Hard Disk Drive
HIDS Host-Based Intrusion Detection System
HIPS Host-Based Intrusion Prevention System
HMAC Hashed Message Authentication Code
HSM Hardware Security Module
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTTPS Hypertext Transfer Protocol over SSL
HVAC Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning
IaaS Infrastructure as a Service
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol
ID Identification
IKE Internet Key Exchange
IM Internet Messaging
IMAP4 Internet Message Access Protocol v4
IP Internet Protocol
IPSEC Internet Protocol Security
IRC Internet Relay Chat
ISP Internet Service Provider
KDC Key Distribution Center
L2TP Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol
LANMAN Local Area Network Manager
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
LEAP Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol
MAC Mandatory Access Control / Media Access Control
MAC Message Authentication Code
MBR Master Boot Record
MDS Message Digest 5
MSCHAP Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
MTU Maximum Transmission Unit
NAC Network Access Control
NAT Network Address Translation
NIDS Network-Based Intrusion Detection System
NIPS Network-Based Intrusion Prevention System
NOS Network Operating System
NTFS New Technology File System
NTLM New Technology LANMAN
NTP Network Time Protocol
OS Operating System
OVAL Open Vulnerability Assessment Language
PAP Password Authentication Protocol
PAT Port Address Translation
PEAP Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
PGP Pretty Good Privacy
PKI Public Key Infrastructure
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol
PPTP Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
PSK Pre-Shared Key
RA Recovery Agent
RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial-in User Server
RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
RAS Remote Access Server
RBAC Role Based Access Control
RSA Rivest, Shamir & Adleman
RTP Real-Time Transport Protocol
S/MIME Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension
SaaS Software as a Service
SCAP Security Content Automation Protocol
SCSi Small Computer System Interface
SDLC Software Development Life Cycle
SDLM Software Development Life Cycle Methodology
SHA Secure Hashing Algorithm
SHTTP Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol
SIM Subscriber Identity Module
SLA Service Level Agreement
SLE Single Loss Expectancy
SMS Short Message Service
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SSH Secure Shell
SSL Secure Sockets Layer
SSO Single Sign-On
TACACS Terminal Access Controller Access Control System
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TLS Transport Layer Security
TPM Trusted Platform Module
UAT User Acceptance Testing
UPS Uninterrupted Power Supply
URL Universal Resource Locator
USB Universal Serial Bus
UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair
VLAN Virtual Local Area Network
VoIP Voice Over IP
VPN Virtual Private Network
VTC Video Teleconferencing
WAF Web Application Firewall
WAP Wireless Access Point
WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy
WIDS Wireless Intrusion detection System
WIPS Wireless Intrusion Prevention System
WPA Wireless Protected Access
XSRF Cross-Site request Forgery
XSS Cross-Site Scripting

Secret Partition on a Pen Drive

Secret Partition on a Pen Drive:

There is no simple way to partition USB pen drives, as they show up as a removable drive on the PC. In order to do so, you need to trick the operating system into recognizing the USB pen drive as a fixed hard drive. To do this, you need to create your own set of drivers. Doing so, you can create multiple partitions and store your private data on it. Only the first partition will be visible and the other partitions will not show up on any PC other than your own. In this way, you can secretly store your personal data away from your friends and family, and also you can avoid viruses affecting this data when plugged in on another computer. To do this, all you need is a simple universal USB pen drive driver, which can be downloaded from 


Download the archive, uncompress it to a folder on your Desktop and get started. Don’t forget to backup the contents of your pen drive as it will be formatted.

flash drive

Step 1: Plug your pen drive into your PC’s USB port. Next, right-click on ‘My Computer’ and click on ‘Manage’ in the context menu. Click on ‘Device Manager’ on the left pane. This will show all your hardware devices connected to your PC. Now on the right pane, scroll down to ‘Disk Drives’ and you should see your pen drive connected here. Right-click on the pen drive and select ‘Properties’.



Step 2: In the properties window that just opened up, click on the ‘Details’ tab. From the scroll down menu under ‘Property’, choose ‘Device Instance Path’. You should see a string of characters highlighted in the ‘Value’ window below, which should read something like ‘USBSTOR\DISK&VEN_&PROD……Right‑click on this value and select ‘Copy’. Now close all the windows without saving changes.


Step 3: Now open the folder that you uncompressed after downloading the universal USB flash drive driver. In this folder, find and open the file named ‘cfadisk.inf’ in ‘Notepad’ or any test editor you prefer (Notepad++ is ideal. Download from notepad-plus-plus.org).

 Step 4: Now locate the words ‘device_instance_id_goes_here’, which is available at line 26. You need to replace these words with the string you just copied to the clipboard from the Device Manager. Save the file and close the editor.

 Step 5: Now go back to the ‘Device Manager’ page (repeat step 1). This time, click on the ‘Driver’ tab and click the button ‘Update driver’.


Step 6: On the next window, choose ‘Browse my computer for driver software’ when the system asks how you want to search for the driver software. Then on the next window, choose ‘Let me pick from a list of drivers…. ‘.



 Step 7: On the next window, un check the box ‘Show compatible hardware’ and click on the ‘Have disk button’. Now click on ‘Browse’ and from the universal USB driver folder on your Desktop, select the ‘cfadisk.inf’ file and click on the ‘Open button’, followed by the ‘OK’ and then ‘Next’ buttons on the previous windows.

 Step 8: An update driver warning message should show up stating that you are trying to install a driver which is not compatible with your hardware. Ignore the message and click on ‘Yes’. Don’t worry; it is safe to do so. The system will start installing the driver and show up another warning that the driver is not a verified or authentic driver. Ignore this one too and click on ‘Install this driver software anyway’. Let the system update the driver and you will receive a message of a successful driver update.


Note: you can use this modified driver for this pen drive only. To use another pen drive, you will need to perform the whole process again.

 Step 9: That’s all you needed to do. Once you are back to the ‘Computer Management’ window, click on ‘Disk Management’ from the left pane and start partitioning your pen drive as you would with a regular hard drive. You can create multiple partitions.


Note: You can access all the partitions on the pen drive only from your PC (see Figure-9) Other PCs will only be able to see the first partition (see Figure-10). Make a copy of the driver on the first partition of the pen drive and you can install it on other PCs in case you need to access the other partitions. In this way, you can plug in the pen drive on a shared PC without allowing access to your data. Others won’t know that the other partition even exists another. To reset everything back to normal, simply delete the partitions and uninstall / delete the driver for the pen drive from the Device Manager.


source: tech2, chip

FortiGate Firewall Configuration Backup and Restore procedure Firmware V3.0

FortiGate Firewall Configuration Backup and Restore procedure Firmware V3.0:

Do the following tasks to take FortiGate firewall backup.


  1. Connect the firewall through browser.
  2. Login to the firewall (Enter User name & Password) (see Figure-1)

3.  After logging in, click on System –>Maintenance –>Backup & Restore on the left hand side of the window (see Figure-2).


 4.  FortiGate firewall configuration can be saved to management computer, a central Mangement station or to a USB stick, if the FortiGate supports a USB stick.

5.  The central management station is referred to remote management service the FortiGate unit is connected to. For example, if the current configuration on a FortiGate-60 is backed up to a FortiManager unit, the central management station would be the FortiManager unit.

 USB Disk – displays if the FortiGate unit supports USB disks. This option is grayed out if no USB disks are connected.

6.  Select to encrypt the backup file. Encryption must be enabled to save VPN certificates with the configuration. This option is not available for FortiManager backup option.

 Enter a password to encrypt the configuration file. You will need this password while restoring the configuration file. Confirm Enter the password again to confirm the password.

NOTE:If the password is forgotten, there is no way to use the file.

 Enter the name of the backup file or select Browse to locate the file. The File name field is only available when the USB drive is connected.


7.  Restoreprovides the ability to restore the firewall configuration file.

   8.  Use the “choose file” button if you are restoring the configuration file from the management computer.

         Select the configuration file name from the browse list if you are restoring the configuration file from the USB disk.

  9.  Enter the password, you entered when backing up the configuration file.

source: fortinet


USB (Universal Serial Bus) :

Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an industry standard which defines the cables,connectors and protocols used for connection, communication and power supply between computers and electronic devices.

USB was designed to standardise the connection of computer peripherals such as mice, keyboards, digital cameras, printers, portable media players, disk drives and network adapters to personal computers, both to communicate and to supply electric power, but it has become commonplace on other devices such as smart phones, PDAs and video game consoles. USB has effectively replaced a variety of earlier interfaces such as serial and parallel ports, as well as separate power chargers for portable devices.

USB 1.0 :

A group of seven companies (Compaq, DEC, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, NEC and Nortel) began development on USB in 1994:

The first USB was made by Intel in 1995.

The original USB 1.0 specification, which was introduced in January 1996, defined data transfer rates of 1.5 Mbit/s “Low Speed” and 12 Mbit/s “Full Speed”.

The first widely used version of USB was 1.1, which was released in September 1998.

USB 2.0 (High-speed USB)  :

The USB 2.0 specification was released in April 2000 and was standardized by the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF) at the end of 2001. Hewlett-Packard, Intel,  Lucent Technologies (now Alcatel-Lucent), NEC and Philips jointly led the initiative to develop a higher data transfer rate, with the resulting specification achieving 480 Mbit/s, a forty fold increase over the original USB 1.1 specification.

USB 2.0 (High-speed USB) provides additional bandwidth for multimedia and storage applications and has a data transmission speed 40 times faster than USB 1.1.

The USB 3.0 (Super Speed USB) :

The USB 3.0 (Super Speed USB) standard became official on Nov. 17, 2008.

 USB 3.0 boasts speeds 10 times faster than USB 2.0 at 4.8 gigabits per second. It’s meant for applications such as transferring high-definition video footage or backing up an entire hard drive to an external drive.

 As hard drive capacity grows, the need for a high-speed data transfer method also increases.

  • Super Speed USB has a 5 Gbps signalling rate offering 10x performance increase over Hi-Speed USB.
  • Super Speed USB is a Sync-N-Go technology that minimizes user wait-time.
  • Super Speed USB will provide Optimized Power Efficiency. No device polling and lower active and idle power requirements.
  • Super Speed USB is backwards compatible with USB 2.0. Devices interoperate with USB 2.0 platforms. Hosts support USB 2.0 legacy devices.