Unicef

United Nations Children’s Fund or UNICEF;  was created by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946, to provide emergency food and healthcare to children in countries that had been devastated by World War II. In 1953, UNICEF became a permanent part of the United Nations System and its name was shortened from the original United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund but it has continued to be known by the popular acronym based on this old name. Headquartered in New York City, UNICEF provides long-term humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.

Source: wikipedia

PC in PC

Microsoft Virtual PC 2007 allows users to run multiple operating systems conveniently on a single computer. Users can switch operating systems as easily as they switch applications on a mouse click. Each virtual machine acts like a standalone computer.

Since each VM runs its own operating system, users can install and run x86 operating systems.

Microsoft fully supports the following operating systems running in a virtual machine on Virtual PC:

But users can also install Windows 2000/2003 Server systems, Linux builds and other operating systems.

The operating system that runs on the physical computer is called the Host operating system and the operating systems that run on virtual machines are called Guest operating systems.

The main purpose of Virtual PC is to allow the user to run multiple guest machines on one real host machine.

The main advantages of VMs are:

  • Multiple OS environments can co-exist on the same computer, in strong isolation from each other.
  • The virtual machine can provide aninstruction setarchitecture (ISA) that is somewhat different from that of the real machine.
  • With “save state” option, you can hibernate the VM instead of completely shutting it down. That way, you can reactivate a VM without going through the lengthy boot up process.
  • With “undo disks” option, you can discard all changes to the VM when you close a session. That way, you can have the VM start-up exactly the same as it did the previous time.
  • To directly compare competing software products, you can use duplicate VMs to provide identical platforms.
  • The network adapter in a VM gets a different IP address than the host, so you can connect both guest and host to a home network. You can also setup and test a firewall or webserver without using another computer.
  • NIC traffic bypasses host’s firewall.

The main disadvantages of VMs are:

  • A virtual machine is less efficient than a real machine when it accesses the hardware indirectly.
  • The most glaring deficiency, though, is the lack of USB support in the virtual machines. Other than a mouse or keyboard, if you want to use a USB device with Virtual PC, you’re out of luck.
  • Does not support DVD iso images (Note: Does support real DVD disks in host’s DVD drive).

You can download Microsoft Virtual PC 2007 for free from the following link: Virtual PC 2007.

Installing Virtual PC:

1.       Click Setup. Welcome to the installation wizard for Microsoft Virtual PC 2007 screen appears (see Figure-1).

Figure-1

2.       Click Next. License Agreement screen appears (see Figure- 2).

Figure-2

3.       Click Next. Customer Information screen appears (see Figure -3).

Figure-3

4.    Click Next. Ready to Install the Program screen appears (see Figure-4).

Figure-4

5. Click Install. Installing Microsoft virtual PC 2007 screen (see Figure-5) followed by Installation Complete screen appears (see Figure-6).

Figure-5
Figure-6

6.       Click Finish to complete the installation.

7.       Go to Start >> All Programs>>Microsoft Virtual PC (see Figure-7).

Figure-7

New Virtual Machine screen appears (see Figure-8).



Figure-8

8.       Click Next. Options screen appears (see Figure-9)

Figure-9

9.       Select an option to create a new virtual machine.

10.       Click Next. Virtual Machine Name and Location screen appears (see Figure-10).

Figure-10

11.       Enter name of the virtual machine in Name and Location field.

12.       Click Next. Operating System screen appears (see Figure-11).

Figure-11

13.       Select an operating system that you are going to install from Operating System list that displays all the operating systems the Microsoft Virtual PC supports.

14.       Click Next. Memory (RAM Configuration) screen appears (see Figure-12).

Figure-12

15.       Set the RAM for the virtual machine.

16.       Click Next. Virtual Hard Disk Options screen appears (see Figure-13).

Figure-13

17.       Select ‘A new virtual hard disk’ option.

18.       Click Next. Virtual Hard Disk Location screen appears (see Figure-14).

Figure-14

19.       Click Next It prompts you to specify the path where new .vhd should be created and completing the New Virtual Machine Wizard screen appears (see Figure-15 ).

Note: This will be the same folder as where your .vmc file resides by default but all.vhd files are stored on a separate drive for best performance a folder named Virtual PC on drive D or E on the Host system.

Figure-15

20.  Click Finish. It creates new VM but no operating system is installed on it.



10 reasons why PCs crash

Fatal error: The system has become unstable or is busy,” it says. “Enter to return to Windows or press Control-Alt-Delete to restart your computer. If you do this you will lose any unsaved information in all open applications.”

You have just been struck by the Blue Screen of Death. Anyone who uses Microsoft Windows OS will be familiar with this. What can you do? More importantly, how can you prevent it happening?

1. Hardware conflict :

The number one reason why Windows crashes is hardware conflict. Each hardware device communicates to other devices through an interrupt request channel (IRQ). These are supposed to be unique for each device.

For example, a printer usually connects internally on IRQ 7. The keyboard usually uses IRQ 1 and the floppy disk drive IRQ 6. Each device will try to hog a single IRQ for itself.

If there are a lot of devices, or if they are not installed properly, two of them may end up sharing the same IRQ number. When the user tries to use both devices at the same time, a crash can happen. The way to check if your computer has a hardware conflict is through the following route:

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Device Manager.

Often if a device has a problem a yellow ‘!’ appears next to its description in the Device Manager (see Image 2). Highlight Computer (in the Device Manager) and press Properties to see the IRQ numbers used by your computer. If the IRQ number appears twice, two devices may be using it.

image2

Sometimes a device might share an IRQ with something described as ‘IRQ holder for PCI steering’. This can be ignored. The best way to fix this problem is to remove the problem device and reinstall it.

Sometimes you may have to find more recent drivers on the internet to make the device function properly. A good resource is www.driverguide.com. If the device is a soundcard, or a modem, it can often be fixed by moving it to a different slot on the motherboard (be careful about opening your computer, as you may void the warranty).

When working inside a computer you should switch it off, unplug the mains lead and touch an unpainted metal surface to discharge any static electricity.

2. Bad RAM :

RAM (random-access memory) problems might bring on the blue screen of death with a message saying Fatal Exception Error. A fatal error indicates a serious hardware problem. Sometimes it may mean a part is damaged and will need replacing.

But a fatal error caused by RAM might be caused by a mismatch of chips. For example, mixing 70-nanosecond (70ns) RAM with 60ns RAM will usually force the computer to run all the RAM at the slower speed. This will often crash the machine if the RAM is overworked.

One way around this problem is to enter the BIOS settings and increase the wait state of the RAM. This can make it more stable. Another way to troubleshoot a suspected RAM problem is to rearrange the RAM chips on the motherboard, or take some of them out. Then try to repeat the circumstances that caused the crash. When handling RAM try not to touch the gold connections, as they can be easily damaged.

Parity error messages also refer to RAM. Modern RAM chips are either parity (ECC) or non parity (non-ECC). It is best not to mix the two types, as this can be a cause of trouble.

EMM386 error messages refer to memory problems but may not be connected to bad Ram. This may be due to free memory problems often linked to old Dos-based programs.

3.  BIOS settings :

Every motherboard is supplied with a range of chipset settings that are decided in the factory. A common way to access these settings is to press the F2 or delete button during the first few seconds of a boot-up.

Once inside the BIOS, great care should be taken. It is a good idea to write down on a piece of paper all the settings that appear on the screen. That way, if you change something and the computer becomes more unstable, you will know what settings to revert to.

Microsoft Windows is better at allocating IRQ numbers than any BIOS. If possible set the IRQ numbers to Auto in the BIOS. This will allow Windows to allocate the IRQ numbers (make sure the BIOS setting for Plug and Play OS is switched to ‘yes’ to allow Windows to do this.).

4. Hard disk drives :

After a few weeks, the information on a hard disk drive starts to become piecemeal or fragmented. It is a good idea to defragment the hard disk every week or so, to prevent the disk from causing a screen freeze. Go to

* Start-Programs-Accessories-System Tools-Disk Defragmenter.

This will start the procedure. You will be unable to write data to the hard drive (to save it) while the disk is defragmenting, so it is a good idea to schedule the procedure for a period of inactivity using the Task Scheduler.

Hard disks will slow down and crash if they are too full. Do some housekeeping on your hard drive every few months and free some space on it. Open the Windows folder on the C drive and find the Temporary Internet Files folder. Deleting the contents (not the folder) can free a lot of space.

Empty the Recycle Bin every week to free more space. Hard disk drives should be scanned every week for errors or bad sectors. Go to

* Start-Programs-Accessories-System Tools-ScanDisk

5 .Fatal OE exceptions and VXD errors :

Fatal OE exception errors and VXD errors are often caused by video card problems.

These can often be resolved easily by reducing the resolution of the video display. Go to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-Display-Settings

Another useful way to resolve video problems is to go to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Performance-Graphics

Here you should move the Hardware Acceleration slider to the left. As ever, the most common cause of problems relating to graphics cards is old or faulty drivers (a driver is a small piece of software used by a computer to communicate with a device).

Look up your video card’s manufacturer on the internet and search for the most recent drivers for it.

6 .Viruses :

Often the first sign of a virus infection is instability. Some viruses erase the boot sector of a hard drive, making it impossible to start. This is why it is a good idea to create a Windows start-up disk. Go to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-Add/Remove Programs

Here, look for the Start Up Disk tab. Virus protection requires constant vigilance.

A virus scanner requires a list of virus signatures in order to be able to identify viruses. These signatures are stored in a DAT file. DAT files should be updated daily from the website of your antivirus software .

7 . Printers :

The action of sending a document to print creates a bigger file, often called a postscript file.

Printers have only a small amount of memory, called a buffer. This can be easily overloaded. Printing a document also uses a considerable amount of CPU power. This will also slow down the computer’s performance.

If the printer is trying to print unusual characters, these might not be recognised, and can crash the computer.

Sometimes printers will not recover from a crash because of confusion in the buffer. A good way to clear the buffer is to unplug the printer for ten seconds. Booting up from a powerless state, also called a cold boot, will restore the printer’s default settings and you may be able to carry on.

8. Software :

A common cause of computer crash is faulty or badly-installed software. Often the problem can be cured by uninstalling the software and then reinstalling it. Use Norton Uninstall or Uninstall Shield to remove an application from your system properly. This will also remove references to the programme in the System Registry and leaves the way clear for a completely fresh copy.

The System Registry can be corrupted by old references to obsolete software that you thought was uninstalled. Use CCleaner clean up the System Registry and remove obsolete entries.

Often a Windows problem can be resolved by entering Safe Mode. This can be done during start-up. When you see the message “Starting Windows” press F8. This should take you into Safe Mode.

Safe Mode loads a minimum of drivers. It allows you to find and fix problems that prevent Windows from loading properly.

9 . Overheating :

Central processing units (CPUs) are usually equipped with fans to keep them cool. If the fan fails or if the CPU gets old it may start to overheat and generate a particular kind of error called a kernel error. This is a common problem in chips that have been overclocked to operate at higher speeds than they are supposed to.

One remedy is to get a bigger better fan and install it on top of the CPU

10. Power supply problems :

A power surge or spike can crash a computer as easily as a power cut.

If this has become a nuisance for you then consider buying a uninterrupted power supply (UPS). This will give you a clean power supply when there is surge, and it will give you a few minutes to perform a controlled shutdown in case of a power cut.

It is a good investment if your data are critical, because a power cut will cause any unsaved data to be lost.


SQL Server 2005 Features Comparison

The tables below present details about each of the different editions.

Note: SQL Server 2005 Developer Edition and Evaluation Edition are not listed in the tables. These editions have the same feature set as the Enterprise Edition; the only difference between these editions is the licensing policies.

Scalability and Performance:


High Availability:

Manageability:

Security:

Programmability:

Integration and Interoperability:

Business Intelligence:


Source: Microsoft


World Computer Security Day

Computer security is the process of preventing and detecting unauthorized use of your computer. Prevention measures help you to stop unauthorized users  from accessing any part of your computer system. Detection helps you to determine whether or not someone attempted to break into your system, if they were successful, and what they may have done.

Protect your hardware:
Safety and security start with protecting computers. Install a security suite (antivirus, antispyware, and firewall) that is set to update automatically. Keep your operating system, Web browser, and other software current as well and back up computer files on a regular basis.

Use strong passwords:
Make sure that your password is long, complex and combines, letters, numerals, and symbols. Ideally, you should use a different password for every online account you have. If you need to write down your password to remember it, store it somewhere away from your computer.

Email:
Before opening any email attachments, be sure you know the source of the attachment. It is not enough that the mail originated from an address you recognize. The Melissa virus spread precisely because it originated from a familiar address. Malicious code might be distributed in amusing or enticing programs.

Keep personal info personal:
Be cautious about how much personal information you provide on social networking sites. The more information you post, the easier it may be for a hacker or someone else to use that information to steal your identity, access your data, or commit other crimes such as stalking.

Scheduling Backups for SQL Server 2005 Express Edition

One drawback with SQL Server 2005 Express Edition is that it does not offer a way to schedule jobs. A database backup in SQL2005 Express Edition is scheduled in both the operating system and SQL Server using the tools.

To schedule a backup of a database:

Steps :

1.    Create a folder ‘BackUp’ in D drive, “D:\Backup“.  ( This can be changed to any folder you like.)

2.    Go to Start>>Programs >>Microsoft Server 2005>>SQL Server Management Studio, Click SQL Server Management Studio. Microsoft Server Management Studio window with Connect to Server dialog box appears (see Figure 1).

Figure1

3.    Enter a password of the server in Password field.

4.    Click Connect. It connects to the database server and Microsoft Server Management Studio window refreshes (see Figure 2).

Figure2

5.    Expand Databases sub folder (see Figure 3).

Figure3

6.    Expand ‘master’ sub folder.

7.    Click   New Query. A new query file opens ( Figure 4 )

Figure4
USE [master]
GO
/****** Object:  StoredProcedure [dbo].[sp_BackupDatabase] Script Date: 26/11/2010 11:40:47 ******/
SET ANSI_NULLS ON
GO
SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER ON
GO

CREATE PROCEDURE [dbo].[sp_BackupDatabase]
@databaseName sysname, @backupType CHAR(1)
AS
BEGIN
SET NOCOUNT ON;

DECLARE @sqlCommand NVARCHAR(1000)
DECLARE @dateTime NVARCHAR(20)

SELECT @dateTime = REPLACE(CONVERT(VARCHAR, GETDATE(),111),'/','') +
REPLACE(CONVERT(VARCHAR, GETDATE(),108),':','')

IF @backupType = 'F'
SET @sqlCommand = 'BACKUP DATABASE ' + @databaseName +
' TO DISK = ''D:\Backup\' + @databaseName + '_Full_' + @dateTime + '.BAK'''



EXECUTE sp_executesql @sqlCommand
END

8.    Click   to execute the query. It saves the query in the name highlighted in red (see Figure 5) in Stored Procedures sub folder.

Figure5

9.    Click   New Query. A new query file opens.

10.    Type the following query in the new query file.

sp_BackupDatabase ‘readydesk’, ‘F’
GO
sp_BackupDatabase ‘abacus’, ‘F’
GO
QUIT

11.    Place the cursor at the top of the query.

12.    Right-click the mouse. A shortcut menu appears (see Figure 6).

Figure6

13.   Save the file as backup.sql and for our purposes this is created in the “D:\Backup” folder, but again this could be put anywhere.

14.    Goto Start>>Programs >>Accessories>>System Tools>>Scheduled Tasks, click Scheduled Tasks. Scheduled Tasks window appears (see Figure 7).

Figure7

15.    Click ‘Add Scheduled Task’. Scheduled Task Wizard screen appears (see Figure 8).

Figure8

16.    Click Next. Scheduled Task Wizard screen refreshes (see Figure 9).

Figure9

17.    Click ‘Browse’ to SQLCMD.EXE. Select Program to Schedule screen appears (see Figure 10).

Figure10

18.    Browse to select ‘SQLCMD.EXE’ in the programs.

“C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\90\Tools\Binn”

19.    Click Open. It adds the selected program to the Programs list.

20.    Click Next. Scheduled Task Wizard screen refreshes (see Figure 11).

Figure11

21.    Type the name of the task in Task field.

22.    Click ‘Daily’.

23.    Click Next. Scheduled Task Wizard screen refreshes (see Figure 12).

Figure12

24.    Specify the time to run the task.

25.    Click Next. Scheduled Task Wizard screen refreshes (see Figure 13).

Figure13

26.    Type the credentials of the account such as user name, password and confirm password in respective fields.

27.    Click Next. Scheduled Task Wizard screen refreshes (see Figure 14).

Figure14

28.    Check ‘Open advanced properties for this task when U click Finish

29.    Click. Finish. Database Backups window appears (see Figure 15).

Figure15

30.    Type the command ‘sqlcmd -S serverName -E -i D:\Backup\Backup.sql’ in Run field.

Note: SQL query is denoted as follows:
o    Sqlcmd
o    –S: It defines the server\instance name for SQL Server.
o    serverName: It specifies the server\instance name for SQL Server. For instance,  WS076\SQLEXPRESS\
o    –E: It allows you to make a trusted connection.
o    –i: It states this specifies the input command file.
o    D:\Backup\Backup.sql: It specifies the path of the backup.sql file.

31.    Enter the user name in Run as field.

32.     Click Apply.
33.    Click OK. The database backup is scheduled.
34.    Select ‘Database Backups’ scheduled task in Scheduled Tasks window.
35.    Right-click the mouse. A short-cut menu appears (see Figure 16).

Figure16

36.    Click Run. It runs the task at the scheduled time.