July 29, 2011 (Last Friday Of July)
System Administrator Appreciation Day
UEFI: The acronym stands for Unified Extensible Firmware Interface and is designed to be more flexible than its venerable predecessor.
Wave goodbye to BIOS, say hello to UEFI, a new technology that will drastically reduce start-up times.
The next generation of home computers will be able to boot up in just a few seconds, as 25-year-old BIOS technology makes way for new start-up software known as UEFI.
BIOS technology, which has been used to boot up computers since 1979, was never designed to last as long as it has, and is one of the reasons modern computers take so long to get up and running.
By contrast, UEFI – which stands for Unified Extensible Firmware Interface – has been built to meet modern computing needs, and will soon be the pre-eminent technology in many new computers, enabling them to go from ‘off’ to ‘on’ in seconds.
Pronounced “bye-ose,” BIOS is an acronym for basic input/output system. The BIOS is built-in software that determines what a computer can do without accessing programs from a disk. On PCs, the BIOS contains all the code required to control the keyboard, display screen, disk drives, serial communications, and a number of miscellaneous functions.
The BIOS is typically placed on a ROM chip that comes with the computer (it is often called a ROM BIOS). This ensures that the BIOS will always be available and will not be damaged by disk failures. It also makes it possible for a computer to boot itself.
Below are the major BIOS manufacturers:
When you turn on your computer, several events occur automatically:
- The CPU “wakes up” (has power) and reads the x86 code in the BIOS chip.
- The code in the BIOS chip runs a series of tests, called the POST for Power On Self-Test, to make sure the system devices are working correctly. In general, the BIOS:
- During POST, the BIOS compares the system configuration data obtained from POST with the system information stored on a CMOS – Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor – memory chip located on the motherboard. (This CMOS chip, which is updated whenever new system components are added, contains the latest information about system components.)
The BIOS has two fundamental weaknesses. Firstly, it is based on 16-bit assembly code and cannot directly address the latest 64-bit hardware, and secondly, there are no set standards for specifications, so manufacturers come up with their own versions.
The participants of the UEFI Forum wanted to set this straight. From the outset, each process has been precisely defined. Thus, the boot process or platform initialization (PI) is clearly described in phases. Immediately after powering up the PC, the Pre-EFI Initialization (PEI) is executed, which initializes the CPU, memory and chipset. This is then followed by the Driver Execution Environment (DXE). At this point, the rest of the hardware is initialized. This process saves the time required for booting because UEFI can integrate various drivers that need not be reloaded during booting. Thanks to these drivers, the user already has access to network card, including features such as network booting and remote assistance at the early stage of the boot process. With the graphics processor enabled, a fancy user interface is also presented.
However, biggest time-saving feature of UEFI is the fact that not all the installed hard drives will be scanned for the boot loader, since the boot drive is set during the installation of the operating system in the UEFI. The default boot loader is run without consuming much time searching the drives.
The faster boot time is not the only advantage of UEFI; applications can be stored on virtually any non-volatile storage device installed on the PC. For example, programs and diagnostic tools such as antivirus or system management tools can be run from an EFI partition on the hard drive. This feature will be very useful to original equipment manufacturers (OEM), who can distribute systems with extra functions in addition to the standard EFI firmware stored on the motherboard’s ROM.
UEFI fully supports 3 TB hard drives
The classic BIOS can access only up to 232 sectors of 512 bytes in size, which translates to a total of 2 TB. So the upcoming 3 TB variants of Western Digital Caviar Green and Seagate Barracuda XT won’t be fully compatible with the current BIOS. Seagate uses larger sectors to make the full capacity usable on Windows, but the BIOS cannot boot from this drive.
UEFI, on the other hand, works with GUID partition table (GPT) with 64-bit long addresses and can handle up to 264 sectors that address up to 9 Zettabyte (1 zettabyte equals 1 billion terabytes).
The GUID Partition Table (GPT) was introduced as part of the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) initiative. GPT provides a more flexible mechanism for partitioning disks than the older Master Boot Record (MBR) partitioning scheme that was common to PCs.
A partition is a contiguous space of storage on a physical or logical disk that functions as if it were a physically separate disk. Partitions are visible to the system firmware and the installed operating systems. Access to a partition is controlled by the system firmware before the system boots the operating system, and then by the operating system after it is started.
MBR disks support only four partition table entries. If more partitions are wanted, a secondary structure known as an extended partition is necessary. Extended partitions can then be subdivided into one or more logical disks.
GPT disks can grow to a very large size. The number of partitions on a GPT disk is not constrained by temporary schemes such as container partitions as defined by the MBR Extended Boot Record (EBR).
The GPT disk partition format is well defined and fully self-identifying. Data critical to platform operation is located in partitions and not in unpartitioned or “hidden” sectors. GPT disks use primary and backup partition tables for redundancy and CRC32 fields for improved partition data structure integrity. The GPT partition format uses version number and size fields for future expansion. Each GPT partition has a unique identification GUID and a partition content type, so no coordination is necessary to prevent partition identifier collision. Each GPT partition has a 36-character Unicode name. This means that any software can present a human-readable name for the partition without any additional understanding of the partition.
Below given Windows OS supports GPT:
- Windows 7
- Windows Server 2008
- Windows Server 2008 R2
- Windows Vista
- Windows Server 2003 SP1
- Windows Server 2003 (64-bit)
- Windows XP x64 edition
USB (Universal Serial Bus) :
Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an industry standard which defines the cables,connectors and protocols used for connection, communication and power supply between computers and electronic devices.
USB was designed to standardise the connection of computer peripherals such as mice, keyboards, digital cameras, printers, portable media players, disk drives and network adapters to personal computers, both to communicate and to supply electric power, but it has become commonplace on other devices such as smart phones, PDAs and video game consoles. USB has effectively replaced a variety of earlier interfaces such as serial and parallel ports, as well as separate power chargers for portable devices.
USB 1.0 :
The first USB was made by Intel in 1995.
The original USB 1.0 specification, which was introduced in January 1996, defined data transfer rates of 1.5 Mbit/s “Low Speed” and 12 Mbit/s “Full Speed”.
The first widely used version of USB was 1.1, which was released in September 1998.
USB 2.0 (High-speed USB) :
The USB 2.0 specification was released in April 2000 and was standardized by the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF) at the end of 2001. Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Lucent Technologies (now Alcatel-Lucent), NEC and Philips jointly led the initiative to develop a higher data transfer rate, with the resulting specification achieving 480 Mbit/s, a forty fold increase over the original USB 1.1 specification.
USB 2.0 (High-speed USB) provides additional bandwidth for multimedia and storage applications and has a data transmission speed 40 times faster than USB 1.1.
The USB 3.0 (Super Speed USB) :
The USB 3.0 (Super Speed USB) standard became official on Nov. 17, 2008.
USB 3.0 boasts speeds 10 times faster than USB 2.0 at 4.8 gigabits per second. It’s meant for applications such as transferring high-definition video footage or backing up an entire hard drive to an external drive.
As hard drive capacity grows, the need for a high-speed data transfer method also increases.
- Super Speed USB has a 5 Gbps signalling rate offering 10x performance increase over Hi-Speed USB.
- Super Speed USB is a Sync-N-Go technology that minimizes user wait-time.
- Super Speed USB will provide Optimized Power Efficiency. No device polling and lower active and idle power requirements.
- Super Speed USB is backwards compatible with USB 2.0. Devices interoperate with USB 2.0 platforms. Hosts support USB 2.0 legacy devices.
World Environment Day 2011 :
Personal Interview questions :
1. Tell me something about your self ?
Go prepared for this question, as this is the most frequently asked question in the interview. Answer it covering your work experience, educational qualifications and a little information about your family background. Try to focus on key areas of your work while talking about your professional experience. This is an open ended question and can help you in taking the interview in which ever direction you want it to go. You should know where to put a full stop to provoke the desired question from the interviewer.
2. Why does this role interest you? Or why have you applied for this job?
Keep the focus of the answer to this question on your skills, experience and personal qualities. Link the job requirement to your skills rather than talking about the challenges, career and progression.
3. Why do you think should we take you for this job?
Don’t panic if you are asked this question. Make sure that you have understood the job profile well before you go for the interview. Relate your qualifications and work experience with the job requirements. If there are any new things that you are expected to perform in the new job, say that you are always open to learn the new things and take up the new challenges.
4. What motivates you at work?
You can say that competition and new challenges motivate you at work.
5. Why do you want to leave your present job or why did you leave your last job?
The reasons for switching the job could be numerous. The best answer to offer for this question is to say, “for better prospects”. Now they can ask you another question, what do you mean by better prospects? To this you can say, better prospects in terms of experience, and exposure. If you have been made redundant, put your words across very carefully. Your wrong words can give an impression that only you were the one whose position was made redundant, which hardly might be the case. May be you can say something like, “Over last 8 months a lot of restructuring was going on in the company and 40 positions became surplus. One of them was mine. I have learnt a lot during my tenure at XYZ Company and I am sure I can add a lot of value to a position like the one we are discussing about”.
6. What is your greatest strength?
Interpret this question as, what is your greatest relevant strength? Or Why should we hire you? Tell them a strength that they want to buy. For this you will need to properly understand the job profile and keep your answer ready. For example, if the job needs you to have convincing answers ready for the any type customer’s questions, you can sell “your presence of mind” or if you are required to change you sector or industry you can offer “your adaptability” as an answer. It is important to keep ready at least 2 examples of the mentioned strength.
7. What is your greatest weakness?
There are 3 ways to tackle this question. Judge the situation and use one of them.
First way: Use your sense of humor. If the interview is proceeding in the light way and you have built up a good rapport with the interviewer, you can get out of it by saying “Ice-cream”.
Second Way: If you have to answer this question seriously, give a weakness which doesn’t relate to the job under discussion. For example, you can say, I have been using a camera since childhood but I still don’t know how to mend it. If it is spoiled, I will need to take it to an expert.
Third way: Understand the requirement of the role under discussion and say that your friends accuse you of having that weakness but you think that it is important for you to perform your work effectively. For example, if the job needs a detailed study and leaving a single step might need you to re-run the whole process say that “My colleagues accuse me of having a too much eye for detail but I have experienced that to do this work you need to go into details rather than cutting corners. I have worked with people following a shorter .
8. What is your greatest achievement?
The underlying agenda is to know what personal qualities were required to achieve it. Don’t go back too far to answer this question as this might give an impression that you have not achieved anything since then. Find a relevant answer in the recent past for this question. If you are a fresher and have been a topper of your college or university, you can say that during the interview.
9. Are you ambitious?
You can say that I am very ambitious in the way that I don’t like to get a feeling of stagnancy. I want that I should always be getting new experiences and learning new things.
10. What qualities would you look for in a candidate for this position?
To answer this question, you need to analyze the requirements of the job profile before appearing for the interview. The answer to this question would estimate your understanding of the role under discussion.
11. Have you appeared for an interview with other companies? Or how is your job search going on?
This question gives you an opportunity to let the interviewer know that other companies are also interested in hiring you and gives you leverage while negotiating the salary. You can say, Yes, I am in the final round of discussion with two other companies. Approach the interviewer as a “Problem Solver” and not as a “Job Beggar”.
12. Can you name the companies to whom you are talking?
You can maintain your integrity by refusing to disclose the names. You can simply say, they haven’t notified these openings so I believe they would not like their names to be revealed. At times, taking the competitor’s names might increase your chances of being hired. Analyze the situation and answer accordingly.
13. Are you ready to relocate?
You can say, for a right position and right company relocation should not be a problem. Do not close the discussion at the earlier stage by saying “No”.
14. You have stayed for a long time with your last company-Why?
Staying with the same company for too long may be considered as the candidate being un-ambitious. While answering this question you can say, “Yes, I preferred to stay with them all this while because I was regularly adding value to my experience there and I was growing as a professional”.
15. You have switched many jobs-why?
Too much job hopping gives an impression that the candidate is unstable and unreliable but you can put this query to ease by saying that you switched jobs to broaden your experience.
16. What was your biggest mistake?
There’s nothing wrong in admitting a mistake. A human being is bound to commit mistakes. This time it is advantageous to go back as far as possible in the past and find an answer. The advantage of doing this is that a youngster is expected to commit more mistakes than a mature and seasoned person. This would give an impression that since that time you have committed mistakes but not that big. Take the word “mistake” as liberally as possible and go back to your student life to answer this question. Probably you can say, if I could go back to my student life, I would have studied Biology instead of Math.
17. Why haven’t you got a job yet?
This question will usually arise if it has been sometime since you finished your studies and are still in the market without a job. You can say that, I have been offered some tempting positions in the last few days but had to turn them down as I did not find them right for my candidature. You can follow it up with some examples.
18. You do not have all the experience we need for this position ?
To answer this question, you again need to analyze the requirements of the role properly and match them to your candidature. If you meet most of the requirements, you can say that you have most of the qualities needed for this role and for the remaining you are always open to learning them. You can follow this up with an example from your last job where you learnt and did things that you didn’t know earlier. Stay confident while answering this question.
19. Why do you want to quit your present job?
The reasons for you to quit the present job could be numerous, may be you don’t get well along with your boss or your salary is too less but it is not good to make derogatory remarks about your present company in an interview. You can give a more practical answer like, my present company is not able to offer me further growth opportunities and I have a feeling that it is the time for me to grow up in hierarchy and learn further.
20. Have you ever made a mistake at work? How did you rectify it?
Everybody makes mistakes, there’s nothing wrong in admitting it. In the interview you can say that yes, there have been times when you have made mistakes and learnt from them. Whatever you could correct yourself, you did that and for the rest you went back to your senior and took his help to sort it out.
21. What major problems did you face in your last role?
The agenda of this question is to understand if
You caused the problem
Could it have been avoided?
Your attitude to solve it.
It is safer to mention a problem which was caused by an external party rather than the problems within internal parties. May be you can take an example of the problem caused by a customer, vendor. Discuss what you did to solve the problem.
22. Where do you see yourself 5 years from now?
By asking this question, the interviewer wants to see, how ambitious the candidate is. You can say that, 5 years down the line I would like to see myself in a responsible position where I can make important decisions in the favor of company and the company treats me as its asset. I am sure that this company can offer me growth opportunities like this.
23. How do you feel about doing repetitive work?
You can say that I understand that every job has an element of repetitive work but I enjoy fulfilling all the aspects of my job with equal enthusiasm and give them my 100%.
24. How did you manage to attend this interview during your working hours?
Everybody knows that you would not ask permission from your boss to appear for an interview. You can answer this question by simply saying that you have taken a off from the office to appear for this interview.
25. Would you like to work in a team or on your own?
The agenda behind this question is to understand if you are a team player or a solo performer. It might be risky to choose any one of them as the role for which they are considering you might need you to be a team player but the career progression which they might consider for you down a year’s time may need you to handle a more autonomous position. It is better to answer this question by saying that “I don’t have any such preference. I can comfortably handle both the situations, as the need arises.” Now back it up with examples where you successfully worked in a team and where you performed an autonomous role.
26. If your boss was present here, what do you think he would say about you?
This is again a question which can be answered in two ways.
First way: If the situation is light, you can that say, “He would tell you that I am the diamond of his team and you should not let me go.” This needs to be accompanied by a right body language. Second way: If the discussion is proceeding in a serious manner, you can pick up a formal appraisal he gave you and say that I think he would repeat it here.
27. Has your career grown as you had liked?
The agenda behind this question is to understand if there had been times of dip in your career and if you lay the blame for them on others. There’s nothing to be ashamed of, if there have been short gap in your employment. You can justify it by giving a convincing reason. Look at your qualifications and social environment and relate your achievements to them, to answer this question.
28. What would you do if your team ceased to perform?
The agenda behind this question is to understand your management style. A good answer to this question could be, I will try to establish the reasons for nonperformance of the team and try to eradicate them.
29. Would you take up this job if we offered it to you?
Again there are two ways to handle this question.
First Way: If you have built up a good rapport with the interviewer by now you can ask a more direct question, Are you offering it to me? (with a smile and right body language). If they say “Yes”, you can say that off course, based on what we have discussed till now I am enthusiastic in taking up this position. When would you be able to get me a written offer?
Second Way: Alternatively you can say, based on what we have discussed till now, I will be happy to take up this position but there are still certain things that need to be discussed.
30. Your expected salary?
Don’t jump at a figure when you are asked this question during the personal interview. Try to turn the ball back into the interviewer‘s court and ask him the type of salary the company offers for a position like this. Still, if you are required to answer this question, mention a range rather than talking about an exact figure but don’t keep the range too vast, you will be offered the one at the lower end. Probably you can say, I should be comfortable with something in the range of mid fifties.
31. What will you do if you are offered a job with a salary higher than this?
By asking this question the interviewer tries to analyze if the candidate will leave the job for a couple of thousand Rupees. Recruiting a candidate costs money to the company so they would like to hire somebody who has some loyalty towards the company. You can answer this question by saying that though you know the attraction of money every job offers but you would first try to analyze the growth opportunities with both the jobs. If your present company can offer you the desired growth with the industry trend, you would not switch. You will discuss the issue with your senior and ask his views on your growth in the present job and if you see that there is a potential to grow in the present job, you will stick otherwise you will politely inform him about your decision to move ahead in life.
32. Do you want to ask us something about the company?
When you are going for a job interview, go prepared. Try to find out the latest information about the company. When you are asked this question, you can ask interesting questions like the opportunities for you to grow in the company, the expansion plans of the company and the chances for you to grow there. If the company has been in news recently, you can ask questions related to that also.
source : CareerRide